The aim of this study was to validate the predictive value of the ABCD-I score and compare the accuracy of the Age, Blood Pressure, Clinical Features, Duration, and Diabetes (ABCD) and ABCD-I scores in a Chinese population. Consistent with hypotheses about the dimensionality of psychosis, our results provide novel evidence that neural correlates of PLEs, such as reduced functional connectivity of higher-order cognitive networks, are present even in school-aged children. Dick, A.S., Garcia, N.L., Pruden, S.M., Thompson, W.K., Hawes, S.W., Sutherland, M.T., Riedel, M.C., Laird, A.R., & Gonzalez, R. No evidence for a bilingual executive function advantage in the nationally representative ABCD study.
The imaging component of the study was developed by the ABCD Data Analysis and Informatics Center and the ABCD Imaging Acquisition Workgroup. Imaging methods and assessments were selected, optimized and harmonized across all 21 sites to measure brain structure and function relevant to adolescent development and addiction. This article provides an overview of the imaging procedures of the ABCD study, the basis for their selection and preliminary quality assurance and results that provide evidence for the feasibility and age-appropriateness of procedures and generalizability of findings to the existent literature. Eating disorders are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.1 The prevalence of early-onset EDs has increased in the past several decades, with younger children more likely than adolescents to experience psychiatric comorbidity. We examined data from a nationwide sample of 4191 children 9 to 11 years of age from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study. The parents of the children completed the Child Behavior Checklist, providing data about the child’s depressive symptoms, and the Sports and Activities Questionnaire, which provided data about the child’s participation in 23 sports.
Mediation analysis examined whether mean prefrontal cortex thickness mediated the association between BMI and executive function. In this cross-sectional study, cortical thickness maps were derived from T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of a large, diverse sample of 9 and 10-year-old children from 21 US sites. List sorting, flanker, matrix reasoning, Axicorp Financial Services Company Profile and Wisconsin card sorting tasks were used to assess executive function. Whether exposure to multiple common insults during pregnancy also exerts a dose-dependent risk for psychopathology remains unclear. There are few models that account for effects of multiple risk factors on such risk, although polygenic risk scoring is perhaps the most notable.
Children from single-parent households had 1.4 times the odds of receiving detentions or suspensions than children in homes with a secondary caregiver. Dotted line indicates the association of BMI with working predictive index abcd memory when the mediating variable is included in the model. The ABCD2 score is a clinical prediction rule used to determine the risk for stroke in the days following a transient ischemic attack .
Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders , or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression. To better isolate the effects of substance exposure on the adolescent brain, the newly-launched Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, will follow the neurodevelopmental trajectories of over 11,000 American 9/10-year-olds for 10 years, into emerging adulthood. This study will provide a rich open-access dataset on longitudinal interactions of neurodevelopment, environmental exposures, and childhood psychopathology that confer addiction risk. The ABCD twin study will further clarify genetic versus experiential influences (e.g., substance use) on neurodevelopmental and psychosocial outcomes. Neurocircuitry thought to regulate mood and behavior has been directly normalized by administration of psychoactive medications and by cognitive therapies in adults.
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Although in the context of cross-sectional analyses, this evidence is consistent with neural measures partially mediating the association between PLEs and environmental exposures. This study also replicated and extended recent findings of associations between PLEs and environmental exposures, finding evidence for specific associations with correlates of urbanicity, deprivation, and lead exposure risk. The results found specific types of environmental risk factors, namely measures predictive index abcd of urbanicity (e.g., drug offense exposure, less perception of neighborhood safety), deprivation (e.g., overall deprivation, poverty rate), and lead exposure risk, were associated with PLEs. These associations showed evidence of stronger associations with PLEs than internalizing/externalizing symptoms . There was evidence that brain volume mediated between 11-25% of associations between poverty, perception of neighborhood safety, and lead exposure risk with PLEs.
Associations Among Body Mass Index, Cortical Thickness, And Executive Function In Children
The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study provides a unique opportunity to characterize OCS in a large, normative sample of school-age children and to explore cortico-striatal and task-control circuits implicated in pediatric OCD. EF in children is inversely associated with diffusion tensor imaging measures in nearly all tracts throughout the brain. Furthermore, variance in diffusion tensor measures that is shared with EF is indirectly shared with ADHD and conduct problems. Greater use of screen medias was not just associated with longer sleep onset latency and shorter sleep duration, but also increased severity of multiple types of sleep-wake disturbances.
The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing participant and family burden. We review the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery. We present a description of the baseline battery, as well as the six-month interim assessments and the one-year follow-up assessments.
Vanilla Abcd Pattern
Beyond demographics and stimulant use, this study highlights abstract reasoning as an important cognitive variable and reaffirms social problems and screen time as significant correlates of BMI and as modifiable therapeutic targets. Prospective data are needed to understand the predictive power of these variables for BMI gain. Neurobiological differences linked to socioemotional and cognitive processing are well documented in youths with disruptive behavior disorders , especially youths with callous-unemotional traits. The current study expanded this literature by examining gray matter volume differences among youths with DBD with CU traits (DBDCU+), youths with DBD without CU traits (DBD-only), and youths that were typically developing .
Body mass index is an indirect measure of adiposity, and as such, the use of BMI as a marker for metabolic derangement and the lack of metabolic information limits inferences and requires further investigation. However, BMI is strongly associated with total body adiposity in otherwise healthy pediatric populations.70,71 An alternate association for the present findings cannot be ruled out. It is possible that thinner cortex interferes with working memory in a way that is associated with higher BMI. Mean prefrontal cortical thickness might not be sensitive enough to capture neurocognitive changes that were mediated by specific brain areas within the whole frontal lobe.
Some of the psychological and behavioral outcomes at baseline and at the 1-year follow-up were partially explained by differences in brain structure among youths who had been exposed to alcohol in utero. Participants were 9,719 youths (ages 9.0 to 10.9 years) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Detentions and suspensions are common practices of school discipline despite evidence that they are largely ineffective and disproportionately affect children from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds, particularly Black children, and children of lower socioeconomic status. Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it.
Future research should use longitudinal designs to determine the direction of these associations in adolescent populations. Considering race as sociological rather than a biological construct and built on Minorities’ Diminished Returns , this study explored complexities of the effects of SDoHs on children’s working memory. Controlling for typical predictors of behaviors, Black and multiracial Black children had up to 3.5 times greater odds of receiving a detention or suspension than White children; there were no disciplinary differences for Hispanic or Asian children compared to White children.
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study is poised to be the largest single-cohort long-term longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and child health in the United States. In this paper we performed principal component analyses of the neurocognitive assessments administered to the baseline sample. The neurocognitive battery included seven measures from the NIH Toolbox as well as five other tasks. We implemented a Bayesian Probabilistic Principal Components Analysis model that incorporated nesting of subjects within families and within data collection sites. We extracted varimax-rotated component scores from a three-component model and associated these scores with parent-rated Child Behavior Checklist internalizing, externalizing, and stress reactivity.
Data were derived from the 2.0 release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, a longitudinal study of children in the United States. We utilized data from 4,842 children ages 9 to 11; 52% were male, 60% were White, 19% were Hispanic/Latinx, and 9% were Black/African American. Structural MRI was performed at 21 sites in the United States using a standardized protocol29 for imaging acquisition, processing, reconstruction, and quality control.
Principal component analysis was performed on 39 environmental measures and 30 child behavior and cognitive measures separately to identify clusters of parental and social factors and clusters of child psychopathology, behaviour, and cognition. Regression analysis was used to examine independent effects of each cluster of parental and social factors on child psychopathology, behavioral problems, and cognition. Greater Parent Psychopathology cluster was associated with greater Child Psychopathology cluster. Moreover, greater Socioeconomic Status cluster was associated with greater child General Cognition and Executive Function but less Behavioral Inhibition clusters. Greater Proximal Social Environment and Interaction cluster were associated with less child Impulsive Behavior and Behavioral Inhibition, but greater Behavioral Activation cluster. The environmental clusters related to birth outcomes, maternal tobacco, and drug use were not significantly related to child psychopathology, behavior, and cognition.
BY Lisa Rowan